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Quarantine Facilities and Operations

General Quarantine Protocol – Infrastructures and Operations

  1. Period of Quarantine

 The period of holding the introduced or transferred specimens into the Quarantine Facility will depend on the various factors: species to be introduce, life cycle to be introduced, pathogens that could be introduced and spread with the stock (among these pathogens – pathogens not considered further and pathogens for further consideration) and other possible imported stock hitch-hikers.

One of the most relevant points in order to define the required – more or less conservative – quarantine period is the possibility of introduction of pathogens that could be vertically transmitted (by one generation to the next one), or “hidden” pathogens, which could have long incubation periods or cause sub-clinical infections. According to these factors, either the imported stock or the following generations (F1, F2 and so on) would be released after the quarantine process, where testing and monitoring of pathogens for further consideration will be carried out, as it is described below.

In all cases, once the Competent Authority is satisfied that the introduced stock, the F1 or a subsequent generation is safe for limited release, the specimens could be released. In the case of vertically spread pathogens, it is advisable to maintain the parent stock at the facility. Once the F1 has been tested; parent stock should be destroyed and the Quarantine Facility thoroughly disinfected. An application to introduce or transfer an aquatic animal entails a commitment to maintain the animals under conditions of strict quarantine, sometimes, even for a number of years. The quarantine period will need to take into account the life history of the aquatic animal being introduced or transferred. If a pathogen or infectious disease is detected at any point while the imported aquatic animals and their progeny are under quarantine, the supervising Quarantine Officer may require treatment and further testing. If the disease is of a serious and/or untreatable nature, destruction of all aquatic animals held in the facility should be ordered and complete disinfection of the building, water and all equipment should be required before permission to restock is granted.

  1. Standards of construction

 2.1 Location of quarantine facilities

 It is always advisable to avoid quarantine areas in the vicinity of private or government fish hatcheries, aquaculture facilities, watercourses or areas subject to frequent flooding. In cases when the quarantine area is located in the vicinity of another aquaculture facility, water disinfection and filtration protocols described below, for inlet and outlet should be followed very strictly.

 2.2 General requirements

 Access to the Quarantine Facility should be through property owned or leased on a long-term basis by the operator and should be available to Quarantine Officers during normal business hours and at such time that aquatic animals are entering or leaving the facility.

  • The Quarantine Facility should be located within a single operational entity, if possible. It should be structurally physically separated from all other operations and is dedicated solely to the holding of the shipment.
  • It should not share a building having areas that are used for different purposes and should not serve as an access way to other buildings or activities.
  • The Quarantine Facility should not to be used for any purpose, what-so-ever, other than as a place for the performance of quarantine.
  • The Quarantine Facility should be weatherproof and maintained in a state of good repair.
  • The Quarantine Facility should be a secure, lockable building that is surrounded by a lockable person-proof security fence.
  • The holding capacity of the Quarantine Facility should be commensurate with the proposed quantities of the species of aquatic animal for which a permit is granted.
  • Provision must be made for the growth and maturation of the original parent stock and the holding of all F1 and subsequent generations, in case is required.
  • The Quarantine Facility should be equipped for the sterilization of all equipment that comes in contact with aquatic animals or tank water during the quarantine period.
  • The Quarantine Facility should be equipped with back-up systems for essential components (e.g. electricity, water circulation, aeration, temperature control, filtration, etc.) to maintain biosecurity and the health of stocks in the case of electrical or mechanical failures.

 

2.3 Specific construction and equipment requirements

 The Quarantine Facility should comply with the following specific construction and equipment requirements:

(a) Windows should be screened to prevent the entry of insects.

(b) Floor and walls should be constructed of concrete, tiles or other impervious material to enable hose down and disinfection with retention of all wastewater. The floor should be sufficiently smooth and with sufficient grade to drain to an enclosed holding tank.

(c) Floor to wall junctions and all gaps and cracks in the walls, floor and ceiling should be effectively sealed such that the quarantine area is capable of containing all leaks and floods that might occur.

(d) Lighting should be of sufficient intensity to allow proper inspection of all aquatic animals.

(e) Floor drainage with an insertable plug or other mechanism to prevent the accidental escape of aquatic animals or uncontrolled release of water should be installed. Drainage should be to an approved holding tank. The holding tank should be of suitable size to contain the total volume of all tanks used for the holding of aquatic animals

(f) Doors should be equipped with self-closing mechanisms to ensure that they remain closed after entry, or there should be a self-closing insect-proof screen door installed.

(g) Access to the Quarantine Facility should only be through a personnel entrance leading to a separate outer change room provided with facilities for staff and Quarantine Officers to wash their hands and change outer clothing prior to entering or leaving the quarantine area.

(h) A footbath containing disinfectant should be placed at the entrance door to the quarantine facility.

(i) All holding tanks for aquatic animals should:

  • Be identified with permanent numbers so that individual tank records can be correlated with them;
  • Be fitted with lids or other approved coverings so as to prevent transmission of pathogens between adjacent tanks due to splash from the aeration/filter system, and to prevent the escape of aquatic animals;
  • Have water intake lines equipped with automatic shut-off valves;
  • Be arranged in a manner that permits ready access for inspection purposes, including a minimum width of 75 cm for corridors between rows of tanks or tanks and walls;
  • Other than the aquatic animals, contain only sterilisable materials that do not interfere with inspection;
  • Have at least the front transparent to provide good visibility of their contents, and be stacked for adequate viewing; and
  • Have its own set of equipment – nets, buckets, beakers and other items associated with the tank use, to ensure that none are shared between tanks.

(j) As all aquatic animals within the facility should be considered to have the same quarantine status, the use of a shared water recirculation system is permissible but not advisable, as it may facilitate the spread of pathogens between tanks.

(k) All entry and exit points to the Quarantine Facility should prominently display a permanently affixed, quarantine sign that states “Quarantine Area–Authorized Persons Only”. Such signs should be highly visible.

(l) A suitable wash-up trough should be located in the quarantine area for the cleaning and disinfecting of equipment. An approved disinfectant should be available at the wash-up trough.

(m) A designated refrigerator or freezer should be provided solely for the storage and preservation of dead aquatic animals. The refrigerator or freezer should be clearly identified as being for quarantine use only – be lockable, and located within the quarantine area.

(n) Equipment necessary to carry out the disinfection all wastewater (both the overseas transport water and all domestic waters used in the Quarantine Facility) should be supplied.

(o) Secure storage facilities for food used for aquatic animals should be provided such that contamination or infestation by pests is prevented.

(p) A fully stocked first aid cabinet should be provided and maintained.

(q) Amenities that should be provided for use by Quarantine Officers include access to a desk and chair, a telephone with a direct outside line, toilet facilities, hand washing facilities (within the quarantine area) and a hygienic means of drying hands, and suitable arrangements for daily cleaning of amenities.

  1. Standards of operation

 3.1 Influent water

 All influent water entering the Quarantine Facility should be from an approved water source certified to be free from biological material, including any possible infective agents.

Alternatively, water from other sources may be used; however, it should be filtered to remove suspended matter and then sterilized using a method approved by the Competent Authority before being used in the Quarantine Facility.

3.2 Wastewater sterilization and disposal

 All wastewater to be discharged from the Quarantine Facility should be appropriately sterilized. Sterilized wastewater should not be discharged directly into natural waterways. Disposal of wastewater should also conform to any state and local government requirements. Wastewater should be sterilized in accordance with one of the following methods:

(a) Chlorination

 (i) All water should pass through an approved filter capable of removing suspended organic material prior to hypochlorite treatment.

(ii) All water should pass to a retention vessel where sufficient hypochlorite is be added to achieve a minimum concentration of 200 parts per million (ppm)

(iii) Before the treatment period commences, the chlorinated effluent should be brought to a pH between 5.0 and 7.0.

(iv) Following addition of hypochlorite, wastewater should be agitated for at least 10 min to ensure thorough mixing of hypochlorite.

(v) After a retention period of not less than 1 h, the chlorine concentration is measured using an approved method (e.g. commercially available chlorine test kit). Tanks not achieving a minimum chlorine concentration of 200 ppm

(vi) The chlorine in the wastewater should be neutralized by adding sodium thiosulphate at a rate of 1.25 g (2.5 ml of 50 percent sodium thiosulphate solution) per l of treated wastewater, then, agitated for not less than 10 min before discharge.

(vii) Chlorination records should be maintained noting: the amount of compound added, the volume of effluent, the time that treatment period commenced, the pH at commencement of the treatment period, the 1 hr post-treatment concentration, the amount of sodium thiosulphate added to achieve neutralization and the of residual chlorine concentration at discharge.

(viii) Chlorinated water should not be discharged directly into adjacent waterways.

(b) Heat treatment

 Prior to discharge, wastewater shall be heated to at least 85 C for a minimum of 30 minutes. Water heating units should be approved by the Competent Authority and be fitted with temperature and flow recorders.

(c) Ultraviolet (UV) light radiation

As particles in the water may shade pathogens from the effects of UV light, all water to be treated should pass through an approved filter capable of removing suspended organic material prior to irradiation.

Commercial UV water treatment units operating in the spectral range of 190-280 nm (254 nm recommended) delivering doses of at least 130 mWs/cm2 are required. As UV bulbs will burn long after their effectiveness has waned, the burning time of the UV lamp should be monitored, and the lamp replaced according to manufacturer’s specifications.

3.3 Disinfection of equipment

 Before removal from the quarantine area, and before any restocking, all tanks and tank equipment must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected with:

  • Hypochlorite solution at 200 ppm concentration for 5 minutes; or
  • An approved iodophores solution containing iodine at 0.5 percent available iodine for 5 minutes; or
  • By another disinfection procedure approved by the supervising Quarantine Officer.

If possible, filter material should be disposed of by autoclaving followed by incineration or deep burial.

 3.4 Disposal of dead aquatic animals

 Dead aquatic animals should only be disposed of as directed by the Competent Authority. Aquatic animals that have died while under quarantine should held in an approved freezer, an approved refrigerator, or preserved using another method as specified by the Authority (or other officer in charge) until removed for laboratory examination or released for disposal by the supervising Quarantine Officer. Upon approval, dead aquatic animals should be disposed of by sterilization using of an approved autoclave, followed by incineration or deep burial.

3.5 Disposal of packing materials

 All containers (bags, boxes and cartons) used to hold aquatic animals during transit should be disinfected using the methods of disinfection specified under “Disinfection of Equipment” and then, disposed of by incineration, deep burial or another method approved by the supervising Quarantine Officer.

  1. Work practices

 4.1 Cleanliness and sanitation

  •  The Quarantine Facility and holding tanks should be kept clean at all times.
  • Adequate cleaning facilities (e.g., pressurized water supplies, brooms, shovels, etc.) should be provided to enable maintenance of appropriate standards of hygiene.
  • No animals other than aquatic animals and live food for aquatic animals should be permitted in the quarantine area.
  • All feeds used within the Quarantine Facility should have prior approval of the supervising Quarantine Officer and be of assured sanitary condition.
  • Live food should not be used unless no other alternative food is acceptable to the animals under quarantine.
  • Live food should be certified to the specifications set by the Competent Authority to ensure their freedom from potential disease agents.
  • Equipment used in the handling of aquatic animals and tank cleaning and maintenance should not be shared between tanks.
  • A separate set of equipment (nets, cleaning equipment, etc.) should be kept for each tank or series of tanks operated on an individual water filtration system.
  • In the case where several tanks are linked by a shared water recirculation system, a single set of equipment can be used for all tanks within the shared system.
  • All nets and other equipment should be regularly disinfected by an approved method of disinfection. Equipment or other material should not be removed from the quarantine area during the period that the shipment is under quarantine conditions.
  • In exceptional circumstances and with the written approval of the supervising Quarantine Officer and his verification that proper disinfection has been accomplished, a request to remove specific items of equipment may be granted.
  • All footwear and protective clothing used in the quarantine area should be restricted to this site.
  • The operator should provide protective clothing staff and visitors to use in the facility.
  • Protective clothing should be kept inside the quarantine area (street footwear should left outside the quarantine area and within the changing area).
  • Cloth protective clothing that should be routinely washed may be removed from the quarantine area after washing for the purpose of drying.
  • A footbath containing hypochlorite, Betadine or another approved disinfectant should be maintained at the entrance of the quarantine area proper. The bath should be routinely replenished for adequate disinfection and a record of bath maintenance maintained.
  • All wastewater disposals should meet any state and local government requirements, be by an approved method, and should not flow directly into natural waterways.
  • All filter material should be disinfected by autoclaving on another method approved by the supervising Quarantine Officer prior to removal from the Quarantine Facility and then disposed of by incineration or deep burial.
  • Staff and visitors who have had contact with water or aquatic animals should wash their hands and forearms with soap and water prior to exiting the Quarantine Facility.

4.2 Handling of aquatic animals

 Upon arrival of a shipment of aquatic animals at the approved port of entry, and following verification of the accuracy of details of the shipment and its preliminary inspection and clearance by customs officers, the shipment should be resealed by the supervising Quarantine Officer with an approved tamperproof seal and then transferred to the custody of the operator, who should guarantee the secure transport of the aquatic animals, under quarantine conditions, to the Quarantine Facility.

  • Upon their arrival at the Quarantine Facility, the integrity of the seal should be verified by the supervising Quarantine Officer, the seal removed and the animals transferred to new water.
  • The overseas water should be subjected to an approved disinfection treatment.
  • In the event that a shipment of imported aquatic animals is incorrectly represented in any manner, the shipment may be destroyed under supervision of the Quarantine Officer.
  • A standard Tank Record Sheet should be maintained for each tank.
  • Periodically throughout the day, the operator should observe all aquatic animals for signs of illness and abnormal behaviour.
  • All dead aquatic animals should be held for inspection by a Quarantine Officer.
  • Any equipment that has been in contact with dead aquatic animals should be disinfected before re-use.
  • The use of any drug or chemical to treat aquatic animals should have prior approval and be recorded on tank record sheets.
  • The operator should ensure that no aquatic animals leave the quarantine area under any circumstances without the approval of the supervising Quarantine Officer.
  • On approval by the Competent Authority, the introduced stock (parental), the F1 or subsequent generation aquatic animals may be released from the Quarantine Facility for limited trials in aquaculture facilities or for stocking in enclosed water bodies. The Competent Authority may specify the precise conditions, period and any further risk management measures under which the aquatic animals are to be maintained.
  • All original stock and any F1 or subsequent generation aquatic animals not approved for release from quarantine should remain under quarantine conditions.
  • When determined by the Competent Authority or at the request of the operator, the operation of the Quarantine Facility may be terminated under the direct supervision of the supervising Quarantine Officer.
  • In which case, all remaining aquatic animals, including all original parent stock, should be humanely killed by a method approved by the supervising Quarantine Officer, tested for pathogens if required, appropriately sterilized and then disposed of by incineration or deep burial.
  • The facility and all tanks and equipment should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected using approved disinfectants, as well as all filters, clothing and other similar materi

4.3 Occurrence of an outbreak of a serious exotic disease

If a serious exotic disease is diagnosed, the operator should be immediately notified. In such cases, the supervising Quarantine Officer or other representative of the Authority may direct the management of disease control. Disease control measures may include the extension of quarantine, treatment and/or the destruction of stock.

Measures to be taken are likely to include:

  • Treatment and/or destruction of stock from infected tanks or of all aquatic animals present in the facility at the time of the outbreak, and their sanitary treatment, removal and incineration;
  • Decontamination of the interior of the facility, all tanks and equipment, and all waters present in the facility at the time of the outbreak; and
  • Approval of the Competent Authority prior to the reuse of the facility.
  1. Record keeping requirements

 

5.1 Summary records 

A complete history of the stock of aquatic animals being contained in the Quarantine Facility should be maintained. The operator should, for auditing purposes, maintain all documentation (shipping bills, health certificates, biosecurity clearance, etc.) and records for a minimum period of 36 months after closure of the Quarantine Facility, during which time they will, upon request, be readily made available to a Quarantine Officer.

The following summary information concerning the quarantined stock should be recorded:

  • Overseas supplier, country of origin and waybill;
  • Date of arrival of parent stock;
  • Date/s of release of stock, F1 or subsequent generation from quarantine;
  • Total number of animals in original shipment/s and total mortalities in each shipment upon arrival;
  • Original number of animals stocked in each tank;
  • Details of any clinical signs of disease and number of affected individuals, by tank;
  • Details of any mortalities, by tank;
  • Details of any health certificates;
  • Details of any diagnostic tests and examinations;
  • Details of any F1 progeny produced (date and number) and their corresponding transfer tank number;

For parent stock, and for any F1 or subsequent generation aquatic animals that for any reason have not been approved for release from quarantine upon termination of the quarantine license: number and size of aquatic animals destroyed, date and method of destruction and disposal and signature of the supervising Quarantine Office; and for F1 or subsequent generation aquatic animals, if approved for limited release from quarantine: number and size of aquatic animals released, date of release, destination, summary of any risk management measures or restrictions to be employed and signature of the supervising Quarantine Officer.

 

5.2 Tank record sheets

A corresponding approved Tank Record Sheet should be maintained for each holding tank and must be kept up to date at all times. Tank Record Sheets should be retained for a minimum of 36 months following release from quarantine of the portion of the shipment held in the specific tank, or their destruction.

This sheet should display the following information if possible:

  • Tank number;
  • Number of aquatic animals in tank;
  • Exporter identification details, including country of export;
  • Importer’s name;
  • Date of arrival;
  • Shipment or airway bill number;
  • Number of aquatic animals dead on arrival;
  • Details of any observed disease conditions and number of sick aquatic animals;
  • Daily record of number of aquatic animal deaths in tank;
  • Details of any prophylactic or therapeutic treatments given;
  • Disposal details;
  • Disinfection details; and
  • Details of any F1 progeny produced (date and number) and their corresponding transfer tank number, if any.

 

5.3 Operations and entry logbooks

  • Details of wastewater treatment (including chlorination records); filter cleaning, replacement or disposal; internal audit; and general maintenance should be recorded in an operations logbook.
  • A separate entry logbook should be used to record details of the entry and exit of authorized personnel into the Quarantine Facility.
  1. Auditing
  • The operator should undertake systematic periodic internal audits to ensure that the standards for the operation of the Quarantine Facility as in the relevant legislation are maintained and to identify and correct any deficiencies.
  • The operator should record in the logbook, any variations from the prescribed criteria encountered and the corrective measures taken.
  • Periodic external audits of the Quarantine Facility should be conducted by the supervising Quarantine Officer or other approved personnel to verify the security and proper functioning of the facility.
  1. Security
  • Control and security of the Quarantine Facility is of the utmost importance and is the responsibility of the operator.
  • The Quarantine Facility and its perimeter fencing should be securely locked when the facility is not in active use or when unattended.
  • Increased after working hour’s security should be considered to prevent unauthorized entry and theft, particularly where valuable broodstock are being held.
  • Procedures should be adopted to ensure that access to the premises is limited to authorized persons only.
  • The entry of staff into the Quarantine Facility should be restricted to the minimum required to perform necessary maintenance and observation of the quarantined animals.
  • A list of authorized staff should be provided to the supervising Quarantine Officer by the operator. Except in an emergency situation, no other persons should enter the Quarantine Facility.
  • A logbook of all entry and exit into and out of the Quarantine Facility should be maintained. All personnel entering the facility should be required to enter the following information:
    • Name of authorized person;
    • Date of entry/exit;
    • Time of entry;
    • Reason for entry;
    • Time of exit;
    • Signature at exit.

Signature at exit indicates that the exiting staff has confirmed that the Quarantine Facility was in proper order at the time of his/her exit and that the premises have been left in a secure manner. The operator should ensure that all staff conform to these requirements and should verify the accuracy of record keeping on a weekly basis. The logbook should be made available for examination by the supervising Quarantine Officer upon request.

  1. Contingency plans

The operator should develop a contingency plan addressing actions to be taken in the event of on-site emergencies that may arise, such as fire, flood, electrical failure or breakdown of essential equipment (aerators pumps, etc.). In the case of emergency, the supervising Quarantine Officer should be notified as soon as possible.

 

Other Risk Management measures complementary to quarantine

  1. Introduction

Quarantine should be seen as one of a wide range of risk management measures that can be applied, either alone or in combination, to reduce the risks posed by aquatic animal pathogens. The decision whether or not to require quarantine or other biosecurity measures should be done on a case- by-case basis and determined by a risk analysis. Some of the other complementary approaches that can be applied and provides some references that can be consulted for further information are provided below. Risk reduction measures are subdivided into pre-border and post-border measures

  1. Pre-border measures

Pre-border measures are often critically dependent on the inspection, certification and compliance regime of the exporting country and are most effective when undertaken as a cooperative undertaking by the Competent Authorities of the importing and exporting countries.

  • Certification of production source.

The inspection, testing and certification of hatcheries and other aquaculture production facilities as free from specific pathogens is a highly effective method to assure freedom from many serious diseases.

  • Use of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks.

The pathogen for which freedom is certified varies between SPF production facilities and species. There is also no universally accepted standard (e.g. type, number and frequency of diagnostic testing that must be performed) as to the criteria that must be met for a production facility to achieve SPF production status.

  • Zoning.

Sourcing stock from production facilities located in disease-free zones is another highly effective method to assure that the aquatic animals being moved are free from certain serious pathogens. Such a system is currently in place in the European Union.

  • Restrictions on life cycle stages. 

Juvenile stages and especially fertilized eggs generally carry fewer subclinical infections than do adult animals.

Restricting importations to surface-disinfected fertilized eggs is often an effective way to prevent the movement of parasites, most bacteria and some viruses.

  • Lists of approved species.

Allowing importation only of certain preapproved “lower risk” species is an effective means to reduce the likelihood of pathogen introduction. Such lists should be country-specific as determined by risk analysis, taking into consideration the various national factors, including possible end uses.

  • Lists of approved exporting countries.

Importing countries may wish to establish lists of exporting countries that have met preset risk management conditions and thus can be pre-approved as lower risk sources for certain types of aquatic animals.

Such conditions might include, for example:

  • Presence of disease surveillance, monitoring and reporting programmes;
  • Existence of zoning programmes;
  • Existence of production facility health certification programmes;
  • Existence of standard operating procedures or better management practices (BMPs) for production facilities and exporters; and
  • Existence of contingency plans for serious disease outbreaks.

 

  • On-site inspection of exporting facilities.

 For movements of “high risk” species, the Competent Authority of the importing country may wish to make on-site visits to proposed hatchery or other production facilities to verify the biosecurity measures that are in place to support claims of health status.

  • Evaluation of Competent Authorities.

 In cases where, as part of a risk assessment, the Competent Authority of an importing country has uncertainty regarding the zoo sanitary measures used by a potential exporting country, an evaluation of the Authority may help to relieve any specific concerns.

  • International and other health certificates.
  •  Requiring international health certificates for specific OIE-listed diseases of concern to the importing country can provide a high level of assurance that consignments are free of the specified diseases.
  • It should be noted that importing countries should not require certification for diseases that are not relevant to their country situation and/or the species of aquatic animal being moved.
  • Other types of health certificates are of limited value and must be individually evaluated based on the reliability of the diagnostic test(s) performed, the sampling regime, etc.
  • Health certificates based on visual inspection for gross signs of pathology/or general “healthiness” have little value in preventing the international spread of transboundary aquatic animal diseases (TAADS).

 

  • Pre-border quarantine and temporary holding.
  •  Risks to the importing country posed by “high risk” species can be reduced by conducting quarantine and disease testing of the stock/consignment or aquatic animals to be imported in the exporting country, or in a third country having appropriate quarantine capacity.
  • Pre-border quarantine holding of “lower risk” aquatic animals in the exporting country can also allow time for any diseases or infections to become evident.
  • In quarantine situations involving “high risk” species, the use of co-habitation experiments in which key native species are held in contact with the exotic species or effluent waters from the quarantine holding tank can be performed to investigate pathogen presence and the susceptibility of native species.
  • Placing quarantined animals under increased stress may also assist in the overt expression of subclinical infections.

 

  • Pre-shipment treatment.
  • In some cases, the use of pre-shipment treatments can reduce the risk of pathogen transfer.
  • The surface disinfection of eggs using iodophores, for example, is one such treatment.
  • However, treatment of external parasites and bacterial infections may only reduce infection levels, removing the clinical signs of disease but not eradicating the pathogen(s).

 Inspection, certification and compliance audits.

Establishing auditing procedures to verify that exporters, importers, Competent Authorities and private contracting agencies are strictly adhering to specified protocols and requirements should be considered.

  2. Post-border measures

Complementary post-border risk management measures include:

  • Restrictions on initial use.

 Placing restrictions on the initial use of introduced or transferred aquatic animals provides the opportunity to detect any introduced diseases prior to the animal’s general release into the natural environment and increases the opportunity for control and eradication.

  • Monitoring programmes.

 Inclusion of a disease surveillance component within monitoring programmes for introduced or transferred aquatic animal species can be used to confirm that serious diseases have not been spread to new environments and in the case where serious exotic pathogens have escaped detection in quarantine, will help minimize their impacts by allowing containment or eradication programmes to be initiated at an early stage.

  • Contingency planning.

 All proposals for introductions and transfers should include planning for actions to be taken in case escape of animals or pathogens from quarantine occur or a serious pathogen fail to be detected during quarantine and be released into aquaculture facilities or the natural environment.

 

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